4-5. A stability framework based on conditions within the area of operations of initial response, transformation, and fostering stability, helps the unit determine the required training and task organization of forces prior to initial deployment, and serves as a guide to actions in an operation focused on stability tasks. (Refer to ATP 3-07.5 for more information.) Stability tasks occur in three phases described in the following paragraphs. These phases facilitate identifying lead responsibilities and determining priorities and describe the conditions on the operational environment.
INITIAL RESPONSE PHASE
4-6. These actions generally reflect activity executed to stabilize a crisis state in the area of operations. Army conventional force units typically perform initial response actions during, or directly after, a conflict or disaster in which the security situation prohibits the introduction of civilian personnel. Initial response actions aim to provide a secure environment that allows relief forces to attend to the immediate humanitarian needs of the local population. They reduce the level of violence and human suffering while creating conditions that enable other actors to participate safely in relief efforts.
4-7. Stabilization, reconstruction, and capacity-building are transformation phase actions that are performed in a relatively secure environment. Transformation phase actions take place in either crisis or vulnerable states. There is the presence of a legitimate authority either interim or established as well as indigenous host nation security forces. These actions aim to build host-nation capacity across multiple sectors. Transformation phase actions are essential to the continuing stability of the environment. These actions are essential to fostering stability within the area.
FOSTERING SUSTAINABILITY PHASE
4-8. These are actions that encompass long-term efforts, which capitalize on capacity building and reconstruction activities. Successful accomplishment of these actions establishes conditions that enable sustainable development. Usually military forces perform fostering sustainability phase actions only when the security environment is stable enough to support efforts to implement the long-term programs that commit to the viability of the institutions and economy of the host nation. Often military forces conduct these long-term efforts to support broader, civilian-led efforts.
4-9. Army forces conduct the following five primary stability tasks: civil security, civil control, restore essential services, support to governance, and support to economic and infrastructure development. At brigade level and below, the primary stability tasks are too broad to focus effort appropriately; at lower tactical echelons, lines of effort are best designed using standard mission-essential tasks. Lines of effort may focus on specific aspects of the local situation, such as the restoration of essential civil services. There, activities of military forces often are shaped using lines of effort based on (sewage, water, electricity, academics, trash, medical, security, and other considerations) while addressing the need to provide food aid and shelter.
ESTABLISH CIVIL SECURITY
4-10. Establishing civil security involves providing for safety of the host nation and its population, including protection from internal and external threats; it is essential to providing a safe and secure environment. Civil security includes a diverse set of activities. These range from enforcing peace agreements to conducting disarmament, demobilization, reintegration, and includes biometric identity data collection to identify criminal elements, known and suspected terrorists, and other irregular forces.
4-11. Subordinate platoons of the Infantry company execute stability tasks for the Infantry battalion. Until a legitimate civil government can assume responsibility for the security, military forces perform the tasks associated with civil security. At the same time, they help develop host nation security and police forces. Normally, the responsibility for establishing and maintaining civil security belongs to military forces from the onset of operations through transition, when host nation security and police forces assume this role.
ESTABLISH CIVIL CONTROL
4-12. Establishing civil control is an initial step toward instituting rule of law and stable governance. Although establishing civil security is the first responsibility of military forces in stability, this can only be accomplished by also restoring civil control. Internal threats may manifest themselves as an insurgency, subversive elements within the population, organized crime, or general lawlessness.
4-13. Civil control regulates selected behavior and activities of individuals and groups. This control reduces risk to individuals or groups and promotes security. Curfews and traffic checkpoints, together with biometric identity data collection, are examples of civil control.
SUPPORT TO GOVERNANCE
4-15. Stability tasks establish conditions enabling interagency and host nation actions to succeed. Military forces focus on transferring control to a legitimate civil authority according to the desired end state. At the platoon and squad level, supports to governance tasks are dependent on those of the Infantry battalion and IBCT. Those tasks focus primarily on continuing civil security and civil control operations to provide a safe and secure environment. As in other stability tasks, leader and Soldier engagement with local officials and the population are ongoing.
4-16. Company level and below tasks commonly support external agencies along specific themes nested with higher efforts. Targeted civil reconnaissance, and in some cases surveillance of the population, groups, and institutions, is ongoing to monitor the efficacy of programs, policies, and procedures established by a transitional or civil authority. Early identification of developing problems provides a means to focus additional tasks and available resources to support the appropriate authority before becoming a source of instability and dissent among the populace.
SUPPORT TO ECONOMIC AND INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT
4-17. Support to economic and infrastructure development helps a host nation develop capability and capacity in these areas. It may involve direct and indirect military assistance to local, regional, and national entities. At the rifle platoon and squad level, support to economic and infrastructure development focuses primarily on continuing civil security and civil control operations in order to provide a safe and secure environment that allows external agencies to leverage their capabilities.
4-18. As in other stability tasks, leader and Soldier engagement with local officials and the population are ongoing. At the company and below these efforts are commonly in coordination with external agencies in order to identify the economic and infrastructure development needs at the local level and match those needs with available programs and funding sources.