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    • End of the Somalia Campaign

      End of the Somalia Campaign


      The United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) was the second phase of the United Nations intervention in Somalia and took place from March 1993 until March 1995, following the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991. UNOSOM II was a substantial multinational initiative, uniting over 22,000 troops from 27 nations. This operation marked the largest multilateral force ever assembled for peacekeeping, and at that time, it was the costliest UN operation. Notably, it was the first UN mission authorized from the start to use military force proactively, beyond self-defense. After the infamous Battle of Mogadishu took place, the end of the hunt for Aidid and military operations in Somalia shortly after. The United States withdrew six months after the battle, and the remaining UN forces departed from Somalia in early 1995, concluding the operation. UNOSOM II faced heavy criticism for alleged human rights abuses, violations of international law, and the use of excessive force, attracting scrutiny from a wide range of humanitarian organizations, academics and journalists. Furthermore, the operation was widely criticized for an overemphasis on military operations, diverging from its original humanitarian intent. The humanitarian efforts were heavily called into question following the operation leaving many in doubt of the effectiveness of the United Nations peacekeeping force.

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